Table of Contents Hide
- Milk Fresh Nutritional Profile
- How Many Nutrients in This Food
- How To Serve Nutritious Food
- Diets That May Restrict or Exclude Milk Fresh Food
- How To Buying This Food
- How To Storing This Food
- How To Preparing This Food
- What Happens When You Cook Milk Fresh Food
- How Other Kinds of Processing Affect Milk Fresh Food
- Medical Uses and/or Benefits Of Milk Fresh
- Adverse Effects Associated with Milk Fresh Food
- Milk Food/Drug Interactions
Milk Fresh Nutritional Profile
• Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate
• Protein: High
• Fat: Moderate
• Saturated fat: High
• Cholesterol: Moderate
• Carbohydrates: Moderate
• Fiber: None
• Sodium: Moderate
• Major vitamin contribution: Vitamins A, vitamin D, B vitamins
• Major mineral contribution: Calcium, iodine
How Many Nutrients in This Food
Like meat, fish, poultry, and eggs, milk is an excellent source of high-quality protein with sufficient amounts of all the essential amino acids. The primary protein in milk is casein in the milk solids; the whey (liquid) contains lactalbumin and lactoglobulin.
About half the calories in whole milk come from milk fat, a highly saturated fat that is lighter than water, rises to the top, and can be skimmed off like cream. Homogenized milk is whole milk that has been processed through machinery that breaks its fat globules into fragments small enough to remain suspended in the liquid rather than floating to the top. Whole milk is high in cholesterol.
Whole milk, which gets its creamy color comes from beta-carotene and other yellow pigments in foods eaten by milk cows and goats is a naturally excellent source of vitamin A. Because vitamin A is fat-soluble, it is lost when milk is skimmed. Low-fat and nonfat milk are fortified with added vitamin A; all fresh cow’s milk sold in the United States is fortified with vitamin D.
Milk is a good source of B vitamins, including vitamin B6, a “visible vitamin” whose green pigment is masked by the carotenes in whole milk. When the fat is removed, B6 gives skimmed milk its greenish-blue cast.
Milk is our best source of calcium. Even though some plant foods such as beans have more calcium per ounce, the calcium in plants is bound into insoluble compounds by phytic acids while the calcium in milk is completely available to our bodies. No calcium is lost when milk is skimmed. Iodine and copper are unexpected bonuses in milk. The iodine comes from supplements given to the milk cows and perhaps, from iodates and iodophors used to clean the machinery in milk-processing plants; milk picks up copper from the utensils in which it is pasteurized.
One cup of whole milk has eight grams of protein, eights gram of total fat (4.5 g saturated fat), 24 mg cholesterol, 249 IU vitamin A, and 276 mg calcium. One cup 1-percent (low-fat) milk with added vitamin A has eight grams protein, 476 IU vitamin A, and 290 mg calcium.
One cup of nonfat milk with added vitamin A has eight grams protein, 0.2 g total fat (0.1 g saturated fat), 5 mg cholesterol, 500 IU vitamin A, and 306 mg calcium.
How To Serve Nutritious Food
In general, nutrition experts recommend low- or non-fat milk for adults, but whole milk for very young children. In fact, the American Academy of Pediatrics warns specifically that giving infants or very young children low- or non-fat milks deprives them of fatty acids essential for proper growth and development.
Diets That May Restrict or Exclude Milk Fresh Food
• Lactose- and galactose-free diet
• Low-calcium diet
• Low-cholesterol, controlled-fat diet
How To Buying This Food
Tightly sealed, dry, refrigerated cartons that feel cold to the touch. Check the date on the carton and pick the latest one you can find.
How To Storing This Food
• Refrigerate fresh milk and cream in tightly closed containers to keep the milk from picking up odors from other foods in the refrigerator. Never leave milk cartons standing at room temperature.
• Protect milk from bright light, including direct sunlight, daylight, and fluorescent light, whose energy can “cook” the milk and change its taste by altering the structure of its protein molecules. Light may also destroy riboflavin (vitamin B2) and vitamin B6.
• Milk stored in glass bottles exposed to direct sunlight may lose as much as 70 percent of its riboflavin in just two hours. Opaque plastic cartons reduce the flow of light into the milk but do not block it completely.
How To Preparing This Food
• Chill, pour and serve. Never pour unused milk or cream back into the original container. Doing that might introduce bacteria that can contaminate all the other milk in the bottle or carton.
What Happens When You Cook Milk Fresh Food
• When milk is warmed, its tightly curled protein molecules relax and unfold, breaking internal bonds (bonds between atoms on the same molecule) and forming new, intermolecular bonds between atoms on neighboring molecules.
• The newly linked protein molecules create a network with water molecules caught in the net. As the milk cooks, the network tightens, squeezing out the water molecules and forming the lumps we call curds. Casein, the proteins that combine with calcium to form the “skin” on top of hot milk, will also form curds if you make the milk more acidic by adding lemon juice, fruit, vegetables, vinegar, or wine.
• Whey proteins do not coagulate when you make the milk more acid, but they precipitate (fall to the bottom of the pot) when the milk is heated to a temperature above 170°F. If the bottom of the pot gets hotter, the whey proteins will scorch and the milk will smell burnt.
How Other Kinds of Processing Affect Milk Fresh Food
Milk that has been frozen and defrosted has fewer vitamin C and B vitamins than fresh milk. Freezing also changes the taste and texture of milk. First, it breaks up milk’s protein molecules. When the milk is defrosted, they clump together so that the milk no longer tastes perfectly smooth.
Second, freezing slows but does not stop the natural oxidation of milk’s fat molecules. The longer milk is frozen, the more fat molecules will oxidize and the stronger the milk will taste.
Dried milk tastes cooked because it has been heated to evaporate its moisture. Unopened packages of dried milk should be stored in a cool, dry cabinet where they may hold their flavor and nutrients for several months. Once dried milk is opened, it should be stored in a tightly-closed container to keep out the moisture that will encourage bacterial growth and change the flavor of the milk.
• Once the dried milk is reconstituted, it should be refrigerated. Condensed and evaporated milk. Evaporated and condensed milk have been cooked to evaporate moisture; condensed milk has added sugar. Both evaporated and condensed milk have a cooked flavor. They also have less vitamin C and vitamin B6 than fresh milk.
• Unopened cans of condensed or evaporated milk should be stored in a cool, dark cabinet. Unopened cans of evaporated milk will keep for one month at 90°F, one to two years at 70°F, and two years or more at 39°F.
• At the same temperatures, unopened cans of condensed milk will keep for three months, four to nine months, and two years. Once a can of milk is opened, the milk should be poured into a clean container and refrigerated.
Heat treatments that make milk safer.
Raw (unpasteurized) milk may contain a variety of microorganisms, including pathogenic and harmless bacteria, plus yeasts and molds that are destroyed when the milk is pasteurized (heated to 145°F for 30 minutes or 160°F for 15 seconds).
• Ultrapasteurized milk has been heated to 280°F for two seconds or more. The higher temperature destroys more microorganisms than pasteurization and prolongs the shelf life of the milk and cream (which must be refrigerated). Ultra high-temperature sterilization heats the milk to 280°–302°F for two to six seconds. The milk or cream is then packed into sterilized containers and aseptically sealed so that bacteria that might spoil the milk cannot enter.
• Aseptically packaged milk, which is widely available in Europe, can be stored on an unrefrigerated grocery or kitchen shelf for as long as three months without spoiling or losing any of its vitamins. None of these treatments will protect milk indefinitely, of course. They simply put off the milk’s inevitable deterioration by reducing the initial microbial population.
Medical Uses and/or Benefits Of Milk Fresh
Protection against osteoporosis.
The most common form of osteoporosis (literally, “bones full of holes”) is an age-related loss of bone density most obvious in postmenopausal women. Starting at menopause, women may lose 1 percent of bone density every year for the rest of their lives.
• Men also lose bone, but at a slower rate. As a result, women are more likely to suffer bone fractures; six of seven Americans who suffer a broken hip are women.
• A lifelong diet with adequate amounts of calcium can help stave off bone loss later in life. Current studies and two National Institutes of Health Conferences suggest that post-menopausal women who are not using hormone replacement therapy should get at least 1,500 mg calcium a day, the amount of calcium in five glasses of nonfat milk.
Reduced risk of hypertension (high blood pressure).
In 2008, a team of researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the Harvard School of Public Health report in the American Heart Association journal Hypertension that women who consume two or more servings of fat-free milk and milk products a day reduce their risk of high blood pressure by 10 percent, compared to women who consume these products less than once a month. The finding is specific to low-fat milk products; it does not apply to milk products with higher fat content or to calcium and vitamin D supplements.
Use as a contrast medium.
Patients undergoing a CT scan or X-ray of the gastrointestinal tract to diagnose disorders such as Crohn’s disease, diverticulitis, or tumors are often given an oral “contrast agent,” a barium suspension (barium particles in liquid) that pools in the intestines to outline any abnormalities on the resulting image.
• A report from researchers at St. Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York, published in the May 2008 issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology (the journal of the American Roentgen Ray Society), says that giving patients whole milk instead of barium is as effective in showing abnormalities, is less expensive, and leads to fewer adverse effects.
Protection against rickets.
Virtually all fresh sweet milk in this country is fortified with vitamin D to prevent the vitamin D–deficiency disease rickets.
Reduce symptoms of PMS.
A 1998 study at St. Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City suggests that 1,200 mg calcium supplements a day can alleviate the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. The study did not measure the effect of calcium from foods.
Adverse Effects Associated with Milk Fresh Food
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Like other foods from animals, whole milk is a source of cholesterol and saturated fats that raise your risk of heart disease. To reduce the risk of heart disease, the National Cholesterol Education Project recommends following the
Step I and Step II diets.
• The Step I diet provides no more than 30 percent of total daily calories from fat, no more than 10 percent of total daily calories from saturated fat, and no more than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. It is designed for healthy people whose cholesterol is in the range of 200–239 mg/dL.
• The Step II diet provides 25–35 percent of total calories from fat, less than 7 percent of total calories from saturated fat, up to 10 percent of total calories from polyunsaturated fat, up to 20 percent of total calories from monounsaturated fat, and less than 300 mg cholesterol per day. This stricter regimen is designed for people who have one or more of the following conditions:
~ Existing cardiovascular disease
~ High levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, or “bad” cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, or “good” cholesterol)
~ Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes, or diabetes mellitus)
~ Metabolic syndrome, a.k.a. insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of risk factors that includes type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes)
Lactose intolerance the inability to digest the sugar in milk is not an allergy. It is an inherited metabolic deficiency that affects two-thirds of all adults, including 90 to 95 percent of all Asians, 70 to 75 percent of all blacks, and 6 to 8 percent of Caucasians.
• These people do not have sufficient amounts of lactase, the enzyme that breaks lactose (a disaccharide) into its easily digested components, galactose, and glucose. When they drink milk, the undigested sugar is fermented by bacteria in the gut, causing bloating, diarrhea, flatulence, and intestinal discomfort.
• Some milk is now sold with added lactase to digest the lactose and make the milk usable for lactase-deficient people.
Lactose, the sugar in milk, is a disaccharide (“double sugar”) made of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. People with galactosemia, an inherited metabolic disorder, lack the enzymes needed to convert galactose to glucose.
• Babies born with galactosemia will fail to thrive and may develop brain damage or cataracts if they are
given milk. To prevent this, they are kept on a milk-free diet for several years, until their bodies have developed alternative ways by which to metabolize galactose. Pregnant women who are known carriers of galactosemia may be advised to avoid milk while pregnant, lest the unmetabolized galactose in their bodies damage the fetus. Genetic counseling is available to identify galactosemia carriers.
According to the Merck Manual, milk is one of the 12 foods most likely to trigger classic food allergy symptoms: hives, swelling of the lips and eyes, and upset stomach. The others are berries (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries), chocolate, corn, eggs, fish, legumes (green peas, lima beans, peanuts, soybeans), nuts, peaches, pork, shellfish, and wheat (see wheat cereals).
Raw (unpasteurized) milk may be contaminated with Salmonella and/or Listeria organisms. Poisoning with Salmonella organisms may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea which can be debilitating and potentially serious in infants, the elderly, and people who are ill.
• Listeria poisoning is a flulike illness that may be particularly hazardous for pregnant women or invalids who are at risk of encephalitis, meningitis, or infections of the bloodstream. Listeria may also be found in milk foods made from infected raw milk. Salmonella will also grow in pasteurized milk if the milk is not refrigerated.
Milk Food/Drug Interactions
The calcium ions in milk bind to tetracyclines, such as Declomycin, Minocin, Rondomycin, Terramycin, and Vibramycin, forming insoluble compounds your body cannot absorb. Taking tetracyclines with milk makes them less effective. Antacids containing calcium carbonate. People who take calcium carbonate antacids with homogenized milk fortified with vitamin D (which facilitates the absorption of calcium) may end up with milk-alkali syndrome, a potentially serious kidney disorder caused by the accumulation of excessive amounts of calcium in the blood.
Milk-alkali syndrome, which is rare, subsides gradually when the patient stops taking either the antacid or the milk.
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