Table of Contents Hide
- Veal Nutritional Profile
- How Many Nutrients in This Food
- How To Serve Nutritious Food
- Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food
- How To Buying This Food
- How To Storing This Food
- How To Preparing This Food
- What Happens When You Cook This Food
- How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food
- Adverse Effects Associated with This Food
- Veal Food/Drug Interactions
Veal Nutritional Profile
• Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate
• Protein: High
• Fat: Moderate
• Saturated fat: Low
• Cholesterol: Moderate
• Carbohydrates: None
• Fiber: None
• Sodium: Moderate
• Major vitamin contribution: B vitamins
• Major mineral contribution: Iron, zinc
How Many Nutrients in This Food
• Veal is meat from cattle (usually) younger than three months and weighing less than 400 pounds, with proportionally more muscle and less fat than older animals.
• Like fish, poultry, milk, eggs, and other meats, veal has high-quality protein with sufficient amounts of all the essential amino acids.
• Veal is an excellent source of B vitamins, including niacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, which is found only in animal foods. Veal is a good
source of heme iron, the organic form of iron found in foods of animal origin.
• Heme iron is approximately five times more available to the body than nonheme iron, the inorganic form of iron found in plant foods.
• One four-ounce serving of lean roast veal rib meat has 8.5 g total fat, 2.3 g saturated fat, 30 g protein, and 1.1 mg heme iron (6 percent of the
RDA for a woman, 14 percent of the RDA for a man).
How To Serve Nutritious Food
• With a food rich in vitamin C. Ascorbic acid increases the absorption of iron from meat.
Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food
• Controlled-fat, low-cholesterol diet
• Low-protein diet (for some forms of kidney disease)
How To Buying This Food
The cut of veal that fits your recipe. Thick cuts, such as roasts, need long, slow cooking to gelatinize their connective tissue and keep the veal from drying out.
• A breast with bones, however, has more fat than a solid roast. Veal scallops and cutlets are the only kinds of veal that can be sauteed or broiled quickly.
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How To Storing This Food
• Refrigerate raw veal immediately, carefully wrapped to prevent its drippings from contaminating the refrigerator shelves or other foods.
• Refrigeration prolongs the freshness of veal by slowing the natural multiplication of bacteria on the surface of meat. Unchecked, these bacteria will convert proteins and other substances on the surface of the meat to a slimy film.
• Eventually, they will also convert the meat’s sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine into smelly chemicals called mercaptans that interact with myoglobin to create the greenish pigment that gives spoiled meat its characteristic unpleasant appearance.
• Fresh veal will keep for three to five days in the refrigerator. As a general rule, large cuts of veal will keep a little longer than small ones. Ground veal, which has many surfaces where bacteria can live and work, should be used within 48 hours.
How To Preparing This Food
• To lighten the color of veal, marinate the meat in lemon juice or milk overnight in the refrigerator. Or marinate it in lemon juice. Trim the meat carefully.
• By judiciously cutting away all visible fat you can significantly reduce the amount of fat and cholesterol in each serving. Do not salt the veal before you cook it. The salt dissolves in water on the surface of the meat to form a liquid denser than the moisture inside the veal’s cells.
• As a result the water inside the cells will flow out across the cell toward the denser solution, a phenomenon known as osmosis. The loss of moisture will make the veal less tender and stringy.
• When you are done, clean all utensils thoroughly with soap and hot water. Wash your cutting board, wood or plastic, with hot water, soap, and a bleach-and-water solution.
• For ultimate safety in preventing the transfer of microorganisms from the meat to other foods, keep one cutting board exclusively for meat, fish, or poultry, and a second one for everything else.
What Happens When You Cook This Food
• Cooking changes the way veal looks and tastes, alters its nutritional value, makes it safer, and extends its shelf life.
• Browning meat before you cook it does not seal in the juices but does change the flavor by caramelizing proteins and sugars on the surface.
• Since meat has no sugars other than the small amounts of glycogen in its muscles, we usually add sugars in the form of marinades or basting liquids that may also contain acids (vinegar, lemon juice, wine) to break down muscle fibers and tenderize the meat.
• Browning has one minor nutritional drawback. It breaks amino acids on the surface of the meat into smaller compounds that are no longer
• Heat changes the structure of proteins. It denatures the protein molecules, which means they break up into smaller fragments or change shape or clump together. All these changes force water out of protein tissues, which is why meat gets dryer the longer it is cooked.
• In addition, heat denatures the pigments in meat, which combine with oxygen and turn brown. As the veal continues to cook, its fats oxidize. Oxidized fats, whether formed in cooking or when the cooked meat is stored in the refrigerator, give cooked the meat a characteristic warmed-over flavor.
• You can reduce the oxidation of fats and the warmed-over flavor by cooking and storing meat under a blanket of catsup or a gravy made of tomatoes, peppers, and other vitamin C rich vegetables all of which are natural antioxidants.
• An obvious nutritional benefit of cooking is that it liquifies the fat in the meat so that it can run off. And, of course, cooking makes veal safer by killing Salmonella and other organisms.
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How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food
When you thaw frozen veal it may be less tender than fresh veal. It may also be lower in B vitamins. While the veal is frozen, the water inside its cells turn into sharp ice crystals that can puncture cell membranes.
• When the veal thaws, moisture (and some of the B vitamins) will leak out through these torn cell walls. The loss of moisture is irreversible.
• Freezing can also cause freezer burn, the dry spots where moisture has evaporated from the surface of the meat. Waxed freezer paper is designed specifically to hold the moisture in meat.
• Freezing slows the oxidation of fats and the multiplication of bacteria so that the veal stays usable longer than it would in a refrigerator. At 0°F fresh veal will keep for four to eight months. (Beef, which has fewer oxygen sensitive unsaturated fatty acids than veal, will keep for up to a year.)
Adverse Effects Associated with This Food
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Like other foods from animals, veal is a source of cholesterol and saturated fats which increase the amount of cholesterol circulating in your blood and raise your risk of heart disease. To reduce the risk of heart disease, the National Cholesterol Education Project recommends following the Step I and Step II diets.
• The Step I diet provides no more than 30 percent of total daily calories from fat, no more than 10 percent of total daily calories from saturated fat, and no more than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. It is designed for healthy people whose cholesterol is in the range of 200–239 mg/dL.
• The Step II diet provides 25–35 percent of total calories from fat, less than 7 percent of total calories from saturated fat, up to 10 percent of total calories from polyunsaturated fat, up to 20 percent of total calories from monounsaturated fat, and less than 300 mg cholesterol per day. This stricter regimen is designed for people who have one or more of the following conditions:
• Existing cardiovascular disease
• High levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, or “bad” cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, or “good” cholesterol)
• Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes, or diabetes mellitus)
• Metabolic syndrome, a.k.a. insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of risk fac- tors that includes type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes)
Cattle in this country are routinely given antibiotics to protect them from infection. By law, the antibiotic treatment must stop three days before the veal is slaughtered.
• Theoretically, the veal should then be free of antibiotic residues, but some people who are sensitive to penicillin or tetracycline may (rarely) have an allergic reaction to the meat.
• Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella and toxoplasmosis. Veal treated with antibiotics may produce meat contaminated with antibiotic resistant strains of Salmonella, and all raw beef may harbor T. gondii, the parasite that causes toxoplasmosis.
• Toxoplasmosis is particularly hazardous for pregnant women. It can be passed on to the fetus and may trigger a series of birth defects,
including blindness and mental retardation.
• Both the drug-resistant Salmonella and T. gondii can be eliminated by cooking meat thoroughly and washing all utensils, cutting boards, and counters as well as your hands with hot soapy water before touching any other food.
Decline in kidney function.
Proteins are nitrogen compounds. When metabolized, they yield ammonia that is excreted through the kidneys. In laboratory animals, a sustained high-protein diet increases the flow of blood through the kidneys and accelerates the natural decline in kidney function that comes with age.
• Some experts suggest that this may also occur in human beings, but this remains to be proven.
Veal Food/Drug Interactions
Tetracycline antibiotics (demeclocycline [Declomycin]), doxycycline [Vibtamycin], methacycline [Rondomycin], minocycline [Minocin], oxytetracycline [Terramycin], tetracycline [Achromycin
V, Panmycin, Sumycin]).
Because meat contains iron which binds tetracyclines into compounds the body cannot absorb, it is best to avoid meat for two hours before and after taking one of these antibiotics.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.
Meat “tenderized” with papaya or a papain powder can interact with the class of antidepressant drugs known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
Papain meat tenderizers work by breaking up the long chains of protein molecules.
• One by-product of this process is tyramine, a substance that constructs blood vessels and raises blood pressure. MAO inhibitors inactivate naturally occurring enzymes in your body that metabolize tyramine.
• If you eat a food such as papain tenderized meat which is high in tyramine while you are taking an MAO inhibitor, you cannot effectively eliminate the tyramine from your body. The result may be a hypertensive crisis.
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