Table of Contents Hide
- Water Nutritional Profile
- How Many Nutrients in This Food
- How To Serve Nutritious Food
- Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food
- How To Buying This Food
- How To Storing This Food
- How To Preparing This Food
- What Happens When You Cook This Food
- How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food
- Amazing Medical Uses and/or Benefits
- Adverse Effects Associated with This Food
- Water Interactions Food/Drug
Water Nutritional Profile
• Energy value (calories per serving): None
• Protein: None
• Fat: None
• Saturated fat: None
• Cholesterol: None
• Carbohydrates: None
• Fiber: None
• Sodium: Low to high
• Major vitamin contribution: None
• Major mineral contribution: Sodium, calcium, magnesium, fluorides
How Many Nutrients in This Food
• Water has no nutrients other than the minerals it picks up from the earth or the pipes through which it flows or that are added by a bottler to give the water a specific flavor.
• Hard water contains dissolved calcium and magnesium salts, usually in the form of bicarbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.
• Soft water has very little calcium and magnesium, but it may still contain sodium.
• Some bottled mineral waters may contain as much as 200 to 400 mg sodium in an eight-ounce glass.
• The only absolutely pure water is distilled water, which has been vaporized, condensed, and collected free of any impurities. Spring water is
water that flows up to the earth’s surface on its own from an underground spring.
• Well water is water that must be reached through a hole drilled into the ground. Naturally sparkling water is spring water with naturally occurring carbon dioxide. Sparkling water, artificially carbonated with added carbon dioxide, is known as seltzer. Club soda is sparkling water flavored with salts, including sodium bicarbonate.
• The purity of bottled water depends on the integrity of the bottler. In 1996, responding to questions about possible contaminants in some bottled waters, the FDA imposed limits on levels of contaminantsin bottled water.
• In 1998, the FDA amended the rule to require bottlers to monitor water sources and finished products for contaminants once a year.
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How To Serve Nutritious Food
• Filtered, if required, to remove impurities. (Bacteria may multiply on an ordinary faucet filter. Change the filter frequently to protect your drinking water.)
Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food
• Low-sodium diets (“softened” water, some bottled waters)
How To Buying This Food
Tightly sealed bottles, preferably with a protective foil seal under the cap. If you are on a low-sodium diet, read the label on bottled waters carefully. Many bottled mineral waters contain sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate.
How To Storing This Food
• Store bottled water in a cool, dark cabinet. Water bottled in glass will keep longer than water bottled in plastic, which may begin to pick up the taste of the container after about two weeks.
• Improve the taste of heavily chlorinated tap water by refrigerating it overnight in a glass bottle. The chlorine will evaporate and the water will taste fresh.
How To Preparing This Food
• Let cold tap water run for a minute or two before you use it to pick up air, which will make it taste better.
What Happens When You Cook This Food
• The molecules in a solid material are tightly packed together in an orderly crystal structure. The molecules in a gas have no particular order, which is why a gas will expand to fill the space available.
• A liquid is somewhere in between. The attractive forces that hold its molecules together are weaker than those between the molecules in a solid but stronger than those between the molecules in a gas.
• When you heat a liquid, you excite its molecules (increase their thermal energy) and disrupt the forces holding them together. As the molecules continue to absorb energy, they separate from each other and begin to escape from the liquid.
• When the concentration of the molecules escaping from the liquids equals the pressure of air above the surface, the liquid will boil and some of its molecules will vaporize to a gas that floats off the surface as the liquid evaporates.
• At sea level, plain water boils at 212°F (100°C), the temperature at which its molecules have absorbed enough energy to begin to escape from the surface as steam.
• If you add salt to the water before it starts to boil, the water molecules will need to pick up extra energy in order to overcome the greater attractive forces between the salt and water molecules.
• Since the energy comes from heat, adding salt raises the boiling point of the water. Salted water boils at a higher temperature than plain water does. That is why pasta, rice, and other foods cook more quickly in boiling salted water than in plain boiling water.
How Other Kinds of Processing Affect This Food
Water is the only compound that expands when it freezes. A water molecule is shaped roughly like an open triangle, with an oxygen atom at the center and a hydrogen atom at the end of either arm.
• When water is frozen, its molecules move more slowly, and each hydrogen atom forms a temporary bond to the oxygen atom on a nearby water molecule. The phenomenon, known as hydrogen bonding, creates a rigid structure in which the molecules stretch out rather than pack closely together, as normally happens when a substance is cooled.
• An ounce of frozen water (ice) takes up more room than an ounce of liquid water. “Softening.” Home water softeners that filter out “hard” calcium carbonate and replace it with sodium may increase the sodium content of tap water by as much as 100 mg per quart.
Amazing Medical Uses and/or Benefits
Maintaining body functions.
The body uses water in and around body cells and tissues to regulate body temperature; create blood, lymph, and body secretions; digest food; dissolveand circulate nutrients; eliminate waste; and lubricate joints.
Protection against dental cavities.
Fluoridated drinking water provides fluoride ions that are incorporated into the crystalline structure of dental enamel, hardening the tooth surface and making it more resistant to bacteria such as Mutans streptococcus, a type of bacteria that live in sticky dental plaque, digesting sugars and excreting acidic material that eats away at the tooth.
• To obtain the most protection, the American Dental Association says children should through the eruption of their permanent teeth, around
ages 12 to 13.
Relief from constipation.
Water bulks up stool and moves it more quickly and easily through your body; a glass of warm water first thing in the morning stimulates gastric juices and exerts a mild laxative effect.
• Relief from stuffed nose caused by cold or seasonal (mold, pollen) allergy. Warm beverages loosen mucous, making it easier to clear your nasal passages.
Prevention of heat-related illness.
Heatstroke is a medical emergency caused by dehydration resulting from the failure to replace fluids lost through excess perspiration. Drinking
adequate amounts of water while exercising or working in a hot environment reduces (but does not entirely eliminate) the risk of heatstroke.
NOTE: Alcoholic beverages and caffeinated beverages are mild diuretics; drinking them increases your loss of water.
Antacid, diuretic, and laxative effects.
Mineral waters are natural mild diuretics and, because they contain sodium bicarbonate, naturally antacid. Any kind of water, taken warm about a half hour before breakfast, appears to be mildly laxative, perhaps because it stimulates contractions of the muscles in the digestive tract.
Adverse Effects Associated with This Food
Drinking water may pick up a variety of chemical contaminants as it travels through the ground or through pipes.
• To date, more than 300 chemical contaminants, including arsenic, asbestos, nitrates and nitrites, pesticides, and lead, have been identified in the water systems of various American cities.
• Even chlorine, which is added to the water supply to eliminate potentially hazardous microorganisms, can be a problem.
• The free chlorine generated during the purification process may react with organic compounds in the water to produce trihalomethanes, such a chloroform, which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens (substances that alter the structure of DNA).
• To prevent this, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors chlorinated water supplies to make sure that the level of trihalomethanes remains below 0.10 mg/liter (100 parts per billion), a level currently considered safe for human consumption.
On an average day, a healthy adult may lose 2,500 ml (milliliters) water through breathing, perspiring, urinating, and defecating. An ounce is equal to 30 ml, so we
can replace the fluid we lose with eight 10-ounce glasses of water or any equivalent combination of water plus other liquids and/or foods with a high water content.
• However, in 2008, an editorial in The Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, the professional publication of the association of doctors specializing in kidney diseases, questioned the validity of the “eight-glass-a-day” rule.
• They concluded that there is no clear evidence to support drinking large quantities of water and that it is more sensible for healthy people to drink when thirsty rather than to rely on a specific amount of water each day.
• Their reasoning was simple: If we take in much more water than we need to replace what we lose, the excess water will dilute the liquid inside our cells, lowering the normal concentration of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride).
• Because a proper ratio of electrolytes is vital to the transmission of impulses from cell to cell, a continued excessive intake of fluid may cause water intoxication, a condition whose symptoms include lethargy, muscle spasms, convulsions, coma, and/or death.
• Healthy people whose kidneys are able to eliminate a temporary water overload are unlikely to suffer from water intoxication, but diets that require excessive water consumption may be hazardous for epileptics and others at risk of seizures.
In some parts of the American Southwest, the groundwater is naturally fluoridated to concentrations as high as 10 ppm. Long-term consumption of water with fluoride concentrations higher than 2 ppm may discolor or stain your teeth.
Water Interactions Food/Drug
Diuretic drugs increase the loss of electrolytes through frequent urination. Check with your doctor for precise information regarding fluid requirements while you are taking these medications.
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