Table of Contents Hide
- Wine Nutritional Profile
- How Much Nutrients in This Food
- How To Serve Nutritious This Food
- Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food
- How To Buying This Food
- How To Storing This Food
- How To Preparing This Food
- What Happens When You Cook This Food
- Amazimg Medical Uses and/or Benefits
- Adverse Effects Associated with This Food
- How To Food/Drug Interactions
Wine Nutritional Profile
• Energy value (calories per serving): Moderate
• Protein: Low
• Fat: None
• Saturated fat: None
• Cholesterol: None
• Carbohydrates: Low
• Fiber: None
• Sodium: Low
• Major vitamin contribution: B vitamins
• Major mineral contribution: Potassium
How Much Nutrients in This Food
• Wine is a beverage produced by yeasts that digest the sugars in fruits and turn them into alcohol. Grapes are particularly well suited in winemaking because they are sweet enough to produce a beverage that is at least 10 percent alcohol and acid enough to encourage the growth of the friendly yeasts while discouraging the growth of potentially harmful bacteria.
• Wines contain carbohydrates, a trace of protein, and small amounts of vitamins and minerals but no fats.
• Unlike food, which has to be metabolized before your body can use it for energy, the alcohol in wine can be absorbed into the bloodstream directly from the gastrointestinal tract. Ethyl alcohol (the alcohol in alcohol beverages) provides seven
calories per gram.
• Querceitin and querceitrin, the pale yellow pigments that make white wine “white,” turn browner as they age. The darker the wine, the older it is. Red wine’s ruby color comes from red anthocyanin pigments in red grape skins.
• As red wines age, their red pigments react with tannins in the wine and turn brown.
• The USDA/Health and Human Services Dietary Guidelines for Americans defines one drink as 12 ounces of beer, five ounces of wine, or 1.25 ounces of distilled spirits. One five-ounce glass of wine has 106 calories, 96 of them (91 percent) from alcohol. But the beverage is more than empty calories.
• Like beer, wine retains small amounts of some nutrients present in the food from which it was made.
NOTE: Table wines are wines with an alcohol content lower than 15 percent. Dessert wines are sweet wines whose alcohol content ranges between 15 and 24 percent. Sherry, Madeira, and port are fortified wines, wines to which brandy or spirits have been added.
• Sparkling wines, such as champagne, are bottled with a precisely measured yeast-and-sugar
solution that ferments in the bottle to produce carbon dioxide bubbles.
How To Serve Nutritious This Food
• In moderation.
Diets That May Restrict or Exclude This Food
• Bland diet
• Lactose-free diet
• Low-purine (antigout) diet
• Low-sodium diet (cooking wines)
How To Buying This Food
Tightly sealed bottles stored away from direct sunlight, whose energy might disrupt the structure of molecules in the beverage and alter its flavor.
• Choose wines sold only by licensed dealers. Products sold in these stores are manufactured under the strict supervision of the federal government.
How To Storing This Food
• All wine should be stored in tightly sealed bottles in a cool, dry, dark place, protected from direct light whose energy might disrupt the structure of the flavor molecules in the wine. (Most wine bottles are tinted amber or green to screen out ultraviolet light.)
• After it is bottled, wine continues to react with the small amount of oxygen in the container, a phenomenon known as aging. Red wines improve (“mature”) in the bottle; their taste is deeper and mellower after a year or two, and some continue to age for as long as 15
• Keep the bottle on its side so that the wine flows down and keeps the cork wet. A wet cork expands to seal the bottle even more tightly and keep extra air from coming into the bottle and oxidizing the wine to vinegar. (Bottles with plastic corks or screw tops can be stored upright. Their seals are air-tight.)
• Store leftover wine in a small bottle with a tight cap and as little air space as possible. Use leftover table wines as soon as possible (or let them oxidize to vinegar).
• Appetizer and dessert wines, which are higher in alcohol content than table wines, may taste good for as long as a month after the bottle is opened.
How To Preparing This Food
• All wines contain volatile molecules that give the beverage its characteristic flavor and aroma. Warming the liquid excites these molecules and intensifies the flavor and aroma.
• While dry white or rosé wines are usually chilled before serving, sweet white wines and the more flavorful reds are best served at room temperature.
• Stand a bottle of wine upright for a day before serving it, so that the sediment (dregs) will settle to the bottom. When you open a bottle of wine, handle it gently to avoid stirring up the sediment.
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What Happens When You Cook This Food
• When you heat wine, its alcohol evaporates but its flavor remains. Since evaporation concentrates the flavor, be sure the wine you’re using tastes good enough to drink; cooking won’t improve the flavor of a bad wine.
• In cooking, when you add the wine depends on what you want it to do. As a tenderizer, add the wine when you start cooking; for flavor, near the end of the cooking process.
• Alcohol is an acid. If you cook it in an aluminum or iron pot, it will react with metal ions to form dark compounds that discolor the pot and the food. Recipes made with wine should be prepared in an enameled, glass, or stainless steel pot.
Amazimg Medical Uses and/or Benefits
Lower risk of stroke.
In January 1999, the results of a 677-person study published by researchers at New York Presbyterian Hospital–Columbia University showed that moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of stroke due to a blood clot in the brain among older people (average age: 70).
• How theam alcohol prevents stroke is still unknown, but it is clear that moderate use of alcohol is a key. Heavy drinkers (those who consume more than seven drinks a day) have a higher risk of stroke.
• People who once drank heavily, but cut their consumption to moderate levels, may also reduce their risk of stroke. Numerous later studies have confirmed these findings.
Reduced risk of heart attack.
Data from the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study 1, an 12-year survey of more than 1 million Americans in 25 states, shows that men who take one drink a day have a 21 percent lower risk of heart attack and a 22 percent lower risk of stroke than men who do not drink at all.
• Women who have up to one drink a day also reduce their risk of heart attack. Numerous later studies have confirmed these findings.
Lower cholesterol levels.
Beverage alcohol decreases the body’s production and storage of low density lipoproteins (LDLs), the protein and fat particles that carry cholesterol into your arteries.
• As a result, people who drink moderately tend to have lower cholesterol levels and higher levels of high density lipoproteins (HDLs), the fat and protein particles that carry cholesterol out of the body.
Alcohol beverages stimulate the production of saliva and gastric acids that cause the stomach contractions we call hunger pangs. Moderate amounts, which may help stimulate appetite, are often prescribed for geriatric patients, convalescents, and people who do not have ulcers or other chronic gastric problems.
Dilation of blood vessels.
Alcohol dilates the tiny blood vessels just under the skin, bringing blood up to the surface. That’s why moderate amounts of alcohol beverages (0.2–1 gram per kilogram of body weight that is, 6.6 ounces of wine for a 150-pound adult) temporarily
warms the drinker.
• But the warm blood that flows up to the surface of the skin will cool down there, making you even colder when it circulates back into the center of your body.
• Then an alcohol flush will make you perspire, so that you lose more heat. Excessive amounts of beverage alcohol may depress the mechanism that regulates body temperature.
Adverse Effects Associated with This Food
Increased risk of breast cancer.
In 2008, scientists at the National Cancer Institute released data from a seven-year survey of more than 100,000 postmenopausal women showing that even moderate drinking (one to two drinks a day) may increase by 32 percent a woman’s risk of developing estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor positive (PR+) breast cancer, tumors whose growth is stimulated by hormones.
• No such link was found between consuming alcohol and the risk of developing ER-/PR- tumors (not fueled by hor- lmones). The finding applies to all types of alcohol: beer, wine, and distilled spirits.
Increased risk of cancer of the colon and rectum.
In the mid-1990s, studies at the University of Oklahoma suggested that men who drink more than five beers a day are at increased risk of rectal cancer.
• Later studies suggested that men and women who are heavy beer or spirits drinkers (but not those who are heavy wine drinkers) have a higher risk of colorectal cancers. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
Increased risk of oral cancer
(cancer of the mouth and throat). Numerous studies confirm the American Cancer Society’s warning that men and women who consume more than two drinks a day are at higher risk of oral cancer than are nondrinkers or people who drink less.
Note : The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes one drink as 12 ounces of beer, five ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits.
Alcoholism is an addiction disease, the inability to control one’s alcohol consumption. It is a potentially life-threatening condition, with a higher risk of death by accident, suicide, malnutrition, or acute alcohol poisoning, a toxic reaction that kills by paralyzing body organs, including the heart.
While moderate alcohol consumption stimulates appetite, alcohol abuse depresses it. In addition, an alcoholic may drink instead of eating. When an alcoholic doesneat, excess alcohol in his/her body prevents absorption of nutrients and reduces the ability to synthesize new tissue.
Alcohol is absorbed from the stomach and small intestine and carried by the bloodstream to the liver, where it is oxidized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the enzyme our bodies use every day to metabolize the alcohol we produce when we digest carbohydrates.
• The acetaldehyde is converted to acetyl coenzyme A and either eliminated from the body or used in the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and body tissues.
• Although individuals vary widely in their capacity to metabolize alcohol, an adult of average size can metabolize the alcohol in 13 ounces (400 ml) of wine in approximately five to six hours. If he or she drinks more than that, the amount of alcohol in the body will exceed the available supply of ADH.
• The surplus, unmetabolized alcohol will pile up in the bloodstream, interfering with the liver’s metabolic functions.
• Since alcohol decreases the reabsorption of water from the kidneys and may inhibit the secretion of an antidiuretic hormone, the drinker will begin to urinate copiously, losing magnesium, calcium, and zinc but retaining more irritating uric acid.
• The level of lactic acid in the body will increase, making him or her feel tired and out of sorts; the acid-base balance will be out of kilter; the blood vessels of the head will swell and throb and the stomach, its lining irritated by the alcohol, will ache.
• The ultimate result is a “hangover” whose symptoms will disappear only when enough time has passed to allow the body to marshal the ADH needed to metabolize the extra alcohol in the blood.
Changes in body temperature.
Alcohol dilates capillaries, tiny blood vessels just under the skin, producing a “flush” that temporarily warms the drinker. But drinking is not an effective way to stay warm in cold weather.
• Warm blood flowing up from the body core to the surface capillaries is quickly chilled, making you even colder when it circulates back into your organs. In addition, an alcohol flush triggers perspiration, further cooling your skin.
• Finally, very large amounts of alcohol may actually depress the mechanism that regulates body temperature.
Sulfur dioxide (a sulfite) is sometimes used as a preservative to control the growth of “wild” microorganisms that might turn wine to vinegar. People who are sensitive to sulfites may experience severe allergic reactions, including anaphylactic shock, if they
drink these wines.
When grapes are fermented, their long protein molecules are broken into smaller fragments. One of these fragments, tyramine, inhibits PST, an enzyme that deactivates phenols (alcohols).
• The resulting build-up of phenols in your bloodstream may trigger a headache. All wines have some tyramine, but the most serious offenders appear to be red wines, particularly chianti.
How To Food/Drug Interactions
Acetaminophen (Tylenol, etc.).
The FDA recommends that people who regularly have three or more drinks a day consult a doctor before using acetaminophen. The alcohol/acetaminophen combination may cause liver failure.
Anti-alcohol abuse drugs (disulfiram [Antabuse]).
Taken concurrently with alcohol, the anti-alcoholism drug disulfiram can cause flushing, nausea, a drop in blood pressure, breathing difficulty, and confusion.
• The severity of the symptoms, which may vary among individuals, generally depends on the amount of alcohol consumed and the amount of disulfiram in the body.
Anticoagulants (blood thinners).
Alcohol slows the body’s metabolism of anticoagulants such as warfarin (Coumadin), intensifying the effect of the drugs and increasing the risk of side effects such as spontaneous nosebleeds.
Alcohol may increase the sedative or other central nervous system effects of any antidepressant. Combining alcohol with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors is especially hazardous.
• MAO inhibitors inactivate naturally occurring enzymes in your body that metabolize tyramine, a substance found in many fermented or aged foods that constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
• If you eat a food containing tyramine while you are taking an MAO inhibitor, you cannot effectively eliminate the tyramine from your body. The result may be a hypertensive crisis.
• Ordinarily, fermentation of beer and ale does not produce tyramine, but some patients have reported tyramine reactions after drinking some imported beers.
• Beer and ale are usually excluded from the diet when you are using MAO inhibitors.
Aspirin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Like alcohol, these analgesics irritate the lining of the stomach and may cause gastric bleeding. Combining the two intensifies the effect.
Insulin and oral hypoglycemics.
Alcohol lowers blood sugar and interferes with the metabolism of oral antidiabetics; the combination may cause severe hypoglycemia.
• Sedatives and other central nervous system depressants (tranquilizers, sleeping pills, antidepressants, sinus and cold remedies, analgesics, and medication for motion sickness).
• Alcohol intensifies the sedative effects of these medications and, depending on the dose, may cause drowsiness, sedation, respiratory depression, coma, or death.
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